Although cancer of the kidneys affects both men and women, nearly 2/3 of all new diagnoses are in men. This has to do with certain risk factors including smoking, which is more common in men, than women. For the past 2 decades, the incidence of new cancers has been on the rise, however, the cure rate has also been rising. This is likely do to earlier detection through the more common use of CT scans in abdominal imaging. Historically, kidney cancer would present with hematuria (blood in the urine), an abdominal mass and flank pain. This usually was associated with advanced disease, but now most kidney cancers are discovered incidentally on imaging done for other complaints. Once a suspicious mass is found, the mainstay of treatment is surgery. In patients who are poor surgical candidates, killing of the tumors cells with different energy sources is an option. Depending on the size and location of the mass, either a partial or complete nephrectomy (removal of the kidney) is performed.